Malignant Fibrous Histiocytomas, Fibrosarcomas, Ewing's tumor, and Malignant Lymphoma of Bone

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytomas, Fibrosarcomas, Ewing's tumor, and Malignant Lymphoma of Bone are primary cancerous bone tumors. Primary cancerous bone tumors originate in the bone or bone marrow, and may spread along the length of the bone, other bones, or other organs if the cancerous growth are not stopped through the combination of one or more of these three methods: surgical removal, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. A patient with one of these cancerous bone tumors may first present in a medical clinic with bone pain, soreness, or weakness. Early detection and treatment remains one of the best treatments for these malignant bone conditions. All types of primary cancerous bone tumors carry a relatively high mortality rate and need to remove the affected arm or leg, though these rates continue to go down as the envelope continues to be pushed towards better technology and surgical techniques. Often the affected arm or leg is often saved today as modern surgical procedures have improved. Prognosis varies by bone tumor type, though advances continue each year for all types as medical oncology options continue to advance and improve.

Ewing's tumor (Ewing's sarcoma) most commonly affects 10-20, and more commonly affects males. These tumors may develop in any bone, though the long bones of the arms and legs are disproportionately affected. MRI and CT scans are often used to image the tumors and determine their size and length, though a biopsy is required to make a final confirmation of Ewing's tumor. Treatment options include a combination of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.

Chondrosarcomas are tumors composed of malignant cancerous cartilage cells. Due to the slow growth and low-grade nature of these tumors, they have a high cure rate through surgical removal. Tumors may be assigned a grade as high or low according to how abnormal they look under a microscope and due to their projected growth rate. Though most chondrosarcomas are of the low grade variety, a smaller percentage may be designed high grade. High-grade tumors are more likely to spread. A biopsy is required to correctly diagnose these tumors and determine their grade and growth rate. Surgery only is the prescribed course of treatment for these tumors, because they are completely resistant to radiation therapy and chemotherapy unless the entire tumors is removed. If the entire tumor is removed, the patient has a 75% chance of survival.

Fibrosarcomas and malignant fibrous histiocytomas. Fibrosarcomas and malignant fibrous histiocytomas are similar to osteosarcomas in symptoms, location, appearance, and treatment options. These tumors are may originate in nearly any bones, but usually present in the ling bones of the leg near proximal to the knee. The patient may first experience these tumors by pain and swelling to the affected bones. These malignant tumors may spread to the lungs if they are not diagnosed and aggressively treated with some combination of surgery and chemotherapy. The chemotherapy is usually administered first, and pain usually subsides during this first phase of treatment. Today, the tumors are often successfully removed without the requirement of a complete amputation of the arm or leg. With surgical innovations and improved techniques, long term survival rates continue to improve, with 75% of patients living at least 5 years following treatment. Other primary cancerous bone tumors include, multiple myeloma and osteosarcoma (osteogenic sarcoma).